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Appendix 3

Appendix 3: Health Education Overview

TOPIC

PUPILS SHOULD KNOW:

Mental wellbeing

  • That mental wellbeing is a normal part of daily life, in the same way as physical health. Y3
  • That there is a normal range of emotions, e.g. happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise and nervousness and scale of emotions that humans experience in response to different experiences and situations. Y1, Y2
  • How to recognise and talk about their emotions, including having a varied vocabulary of words to use when talking about their own and others’ feelings. Y3
  • How to judge whether what they are feeling and how they are behaving are appropriate and proportionate. Y5
  • The benefits of physical exercise, time outdoors, community participation, and voluntary and service-based activity on mental wellbeing and happiness. Y6
  • Simple self-care techniques, including the importance of rest, time spent with friends and family, and the benefits of hobbies and interests. Y5
  • How isolation and loneliness can affect children, and that it is very important they seek support and discuss their feelings with an adult. Y6
  • That bullying (including cyberbullying) has a negative and often lasting impact on mental wellbeing. Y1, Y3, Y5
  • Where and how to seek support (including recognising the triggers for seeking support), extending to who in school they should speak to if they are worried about themselves or others. Y1, Y2, Y5, Y6
  • That it is common to experience mental ill health and, for the many people who do, the problems can be resolved if the right support is made available, especially if accessed early enough. Y5, Y6

Internet safety and harms

 

  • That for most people, the internet is an integral part of life and has many benefits. Y5
  • About the benefits of rationing time spent online, the risks of excessive time spent on electronic devices and the impact of positive and negative content online on their own and others’ mental and physical wellbeing. Y5
  • How to consider the effect of their online actions on others and know how to recognise and display respectful behaviour online and the importance of keeping personal information private. Y3, Y6
  • Why some social media, some computer games and online gaming are age-restricted. Y5
  • That the internet can also be a negative place where online abuse, trolling, bullying and harassment can take place, which can have a negative impact on mental health. Y6
  • How to be a discerning consumer of information online, including understanding that information, inclusive of that from search engines, is ranked, selected and targeted. Y6
  • Where and how to report concerns and get support with issues online. Y1, Y6

Physical health and fitness

  • The characteristics and mental and physical benefits of an active lifestyle. Y4
  • The importance of building regular exercise into daily and weekly routines and how to achieve this, for example by walking or cycling to school, a daily active mile, or other forms of regular, vigorous exercise. Y2, Y5
  • The risks associated with an inactive lifestyle, including obesity. Y4, Y5
  • How and when to seek support, including which adults to speak to in school, if they are worried about their health. Y1, Y2

Healthy eating

  • What constitutes a healthy diet, including an understanding of calories and other nutritional content. Y3
  • The principles of planning and preparing a range of healthy meals. Y3
  • The characteristics of a poor diet and risks associated with unhealthy eating, including obesity, and other behaviours, e.g. the impact of alcohol on health. Y3, Y4

Drugs alcohol and tobacco

 

  • The facts about legal and illegal harmful substances and associated risks, including smoking, alcohol use and drug-taking. Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6

Health and prevention

 

  • How to recognise early signs of physical illness, such as weight loss or unexplained changes to the body. Y5, Y6
  • About safe and unsafe exposure to the sun, and how to reduce the risk of sun damage, including skin cancer. Y4, Y5
  • The importance of sufficient good-quality sleep for good health, and that a lack of sleep can affect weight, mood and ability to learn. Y2, Y4
  • About dental health and the benefits of good oral hygiene and dental flossing, including regular check-ups at the dentist. Y3, Y4
  • About personal hygiene and germs, including bacteria and viruses, how they are spread and treated, and the importance of hand washing. Y1, Y4
  • The facts and science relating to immunisation and vaccination. Y6

Basic first aid

 

  • How to make a clear and efficient call to emergency services if necessary. Y6
  • Concepts of basic first-aid, for example dealing with common injuries, including head injuries. Y6

Changing adolescent body

 

  • Key facts about puberty and the changing adolescent body, particularly from age 9 through to age 11, including physical and emotional changes. Y5, Y6
  • About menstrual wellbeing and key facts relating to the menstrual cycle. Y5 girls, Y6 boys and girls
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