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Appendix 2

Appendix 2: Relationship Education per year group

Year 1

  • that others’ families sometimes look different from their family, but that they should respect those differences and know that other children’s families are also characterised by love and care. (Eg, mother and father, single parent, same sex parents, etc.)
  • how important friendships are in making us feel happy and secure, and people choose and make friends. (Emphasise the importance of this in school and should be part of the charter to look after each other.)
  • to understand why we need rules at home and in school and what would happen if these rules did not exist.
  • how to value their own achievements and talents, and make the most of opportunities given to them.
  • that families are important for children growing up because they can give love, security and stability.
  • the characteristics of healthy family life. (Protection and care, spending time together, etc. Remind that all families are different but love and care for each other.)
  • that healthy friendships are positive and welcoming towards others, and do not make others feel lonely or excluded. (This can happen when children fall out with each other.)
  • about different types of bullying, responsibilities of bystanders and how to get help. (If people are watching and do nothing, they are just as guilty.)
  • the importance of respecting others, even when they are very different from them, make different choices or have different preferences or beliefs. (We can learn from learn from each other and respect each other’s differences.)
  • how to respond safely and appropriately to adults they may encounter whom they do not know. (Including people they meet in, eg, parks, shops, etc. Include safer strangers as well.)
  • what they are keeping safe from indoors (eg, fire, electricity, medicines, household substances, etc) and outdoors, and whose job it is to keep them safe.
  • places that are safe (eg, if they are lost, they could go to a shop, place of worship, etc and ask for help) as well as their home or school being a safe place.
  • the importance of road safety as a pedestrian, and the importance of wearing seat belts/using a booster seat..
  • that each person’s body belongs to them, and the differences between appropriate and inappropriate or unsafe physical, and other, contact. (Link to PANTS rules from NSPCC as well.)
  • how to ask for advice or help for themselves or others, and to keep trying until they are heard. (Trusted adults.)
  • the correct names for boys’ and girls’ private parts and that they may use different words at home.

Year 2

  • the importance of respecting others, even when they are very different from them, or make different choices or have different preferences or beliefs. (Be proud of who they are and understand that difference does not mean better or worse.)
  • the characteristics of healthy family life, commitment to each other, including in times of difficulty, etc. (Eg, mother and father, single parent, same sex parents, etc.)
  • that others’ families, either in school or in the wider world, sometimes look different from their family, but that they should respect those differences and know that other children’s families are also characterised by love and care.
  • that families are important for children growing up because they can give love, security and stability.
  • what a stereotype is, and how stereotypes can be unfair, negative or destructive. (Look at how this can be unfair, eg, for gender, race, disability, etc.)
  • what is meant by mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths, and no faith, and how we can support this. (Look at similarities and differences.)
  • how important friendships are in making us feel happy and secure, and how people choose and make friends. (Eg, consider the qualities of a friend, and what they value in friends; understand what a friend is, and how to be a friend, etc.)
  • practical steps they can take in a range of different contexts to improve or support respectful relationships. (Eg, understand that friendships can change, make new friends, deal with losing friends, etc.)
  • about different types of bullying, the impact of bullying, and how to get help. (Include, eg, recognise ways in which their own choices and behaviour affects others, including bullying and being bullied, know when to keep a secret and when not to (eg, not reporting your friend is being bullied), etc.)
  • how to communicate and co-operate with others effectively.
  • how to express positive statements about themselves and others and to recognise and name feelings
  • what sort of boundaries are appropriate in friendships with peers and others, including online. (Eg, 1 person does not dominate by always choosing games to play, etc; do not grab friends – some people do not like being hugged, touched, etc.)
  • how to respond safely and appropriately to adults they may encounter (including online) whom they do not know. (Eg, do not arrange to meet anyone they meet online – should always tell parents if anyone asks them to; do not hug strangers or tell them personal info about themselves, etc.)
  • how to recognise and report feelings of being unsafe or feeling bad.
  • where to get advice, eg, family, school, etc.
  • how to report concerns or abuse, and the vocabulary and confidence needed to do so.
  • the importance of road safety as a pedestrian, and the importance of wearing seat belts/using a booster seat.
  • the reasons why they should not play with matches or electricity.
  • that each person’s body belongs to them, and the difference between appropriate and inappropriate or unsafe physical, and other, contact. (Link to PANTS rules from NSPCC as well.)
  • how to ask for advice or help for themselves or others, and to keep trying until they are heard. (Trusted adults.)
  • the rules and principles for keeping safe online, how to recognise risks, harmful content, and how to report it. (Including age restrictions on games and why these are here – link to PEGI.)
  • the correct names for boys and girls private parts and that they may use different words at home.

Year 3

  • that in school and wider society, they can expect to be treated with respect by others, and that in turn, they should show due respect to others, including those in positions of authority. (Regardless of gender, race, religion, sexuality, disability, beliefs, etc)
  • that stable, caring relationships, which may be of different types, are at the heart of happy families, and are important for children’s security as they grow up.
  • what a stereotype is, and how stereotypes can be unfair, negative or destructive. (Boys can dance, skip and be nurses; girls can play football, rugby and be a mechanic.)
  • what is meant by mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and how we can support this.
  • that there are many social groups in society in terms of culture, religion, age, etc
  • that people live their lives in different ways and that different cultures may have different life patterns
  • the range of jobs carried out by people they know and what they like/dislike about their work
  • ways in which different types of work are similar or different to each other
  • how important friendships are in making us feel happy and secure, and how people choose and make friends. (Also recognise how they impact on the feelings of others, eg, name calling and gossiping can make people feel sad)
  • the characteristics of friendships and support with problems and difficulties. (What makes a friend? What helps and hinders friendships? How can we resolve differences?)
  • that healthy friendships are positive and welcoming towards others, and do not make others feel lonely or excluded.
  • the conventions of courtesy and manners
  • how to initiate friendships.
  • how to recognise their own and someone else’s feelings
  • how to respect other people’s feelings, decisions, rights and bodies, whether they are friends or not.
  • the difference between falling out with someone and bullying them.
  • the different types of bullying – physical, emotional, cyber, homophobic, etc, the impact of bullying and what to do if it happens to you.
  • about the concept of privacy and the implications of it for both children and adults, including that it is not always right to keep secrets if they relate to being safe. (Examples of good and bad secrets.)
  • that each person’s body belongs to them, and the difference between appropriate and inappropriate or unsafe physical and other, contact. (PANTS rule – safeguarding.)
  • how to recognise and report feelings of being unsafe or feeling bad. (Trusted adult. Risks they may take, eg, taking a shortcut home which puts them in danger – link to consequences.)
  • the importance of road safety as a pedestrian, and the importance of wearing seat belts.
  • the potential dangers of water and how to avoid risks.
  • that people sometimes behave differently online, including by pretending to be someone they are not.
  • that the same principles apply to online relationships as face-to-face relationships, including respect for others, even when anonymous.
  • the rules for keeping safe online, how to recognise risks and how to report harmful content/contact.
  • how to consider the effect of their online actions on others and know how to recognise and display respectful behaviour online and the importance of keeping personal information private.
  • how they contribute to making the school environment a safe place
  • the different risks and situations and decide how to behave responsibly
  • how to develop skills for weighing up the choices involved in and the reasons for and against taking risks
  • the difference between the short and long term consequences of taking a risk

Year 4

  • that stable, caring relationships, which may be of different types, are at the heart of happy families, and are important for children’s security as they grow up.
  • that in school and wider society, they can expect to be treated with respect by others, and that in turn, they should show due respect to others, including those in positions of authority. (Regardless of gender, race, religion, sexuality, disability, beliefs, etc. Religious views can still be taken into account, but English law treats everyone as equals and respect must be given. Begin to look at hate crimes.)
  • what a stereotype is, and how stereotypes can be unfair, negative or destructive. (Look at, eg, job opportunities and gender/race gap regarding job titles or equal pay.)
  • what is meant by mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and how we can support this. (Extend this to people with no faith.)
  • about democracy and how they can participate in the decision making
  • some of the rules/laws that young people tend to break and why
  • the characteristics of friendships, including mutual respect, truthfulness, trustworthiness, loyalty, kindness, generosity, trust, sharing interests and experiences and support with problems and difficulties. (Why do you think these are characteristics of friendships?)
  • that most friendships have ups and downs, and that these can often be worked through so that the friendship is repaired or even strengthened, and that resorting to violence is never right. (Think about how they react when they fall out with their friends and the emotions that are involved.)
  • the importance of self-respect and how this links to their own happiness. (This all links with friendships and relationships to others.)
  • the importance of permission-seeking and giving in relationships with friends, peers and adults. (Make links to equal power in friendships – if not equal, one person could be seen as bullying the other.)
  • about different types of bullying, the impact of bullying, responsibilities of bystanders and how to get help. (How these unhealthy relationships can be damaging to a person’s mental and physical wellbeing.)
  • how to critically consider their online friendships and sources of information including awareness of the risks associate with people they have never met. (This is particularly important for children playing online games. Also link to eg, Tic Toc, Snap Chat, etc which despite not being old enough to legally use, they still do.)
  • how to recognise who to trust and who not to trust, how to judge when a friendship is making them feel unhappy or uncomfortable, managing conflict, how to manage these situations and how to seek help or advice from others, if needed.
  • how to recognise if family relationships are making them feel unhappy or unsafe, and how to seek help or advice from others if needed.
  • what sort of boundaries are appropriate in friendships with peers and others (including in a digital context). (Emphasise the importance of online and real-life safety, eg, not giving personal data away, not meetings strangers – they are not your friends.)
  • about the concept of privacy and the implications of it for both children and adults, including that it is not always right to keep secrets if they relate to being safe. (Examples of good and bad secrets.)
  • that each person’s body belongs to them, and the difference between appropriate  and inappropriate or unsafe physical and other, contact. (PANTS rule –safeguarding.)
  • how to recognise and report feelings of being unsafe or feeling bad. (Trusted adult. Risks they may take, eg, taking a shortcut home which puts them in danger – link to consequences.)
  • the importance of road safety as a pedestrian, and the importance of wearing seat belts.
  • the potential dangers of water and how to avoid risks.

 

Year 5

  • that marriage represents a formal and legally recognised commitment of two people to each other which is intended to be lifelong. (Used to be between a man and a woman, can now be between two men or two women as well.)
  • what a stereotype is, and how stereotypes can be unfair, negative or destructive. (Cover gender, race, religion, age, disability, etc.)
  • about democracy and how they can participate in the decision making.
  • about the rule of law and that everyone in this country is equal.
  • about individual liberty.
  • that healthy friendships are positive and welcoming towards others, and do not make others feel lonely or excluded. (All relationships/ friendships are equal. Do not work if one person tries to dominate the others.)
  • that stable, caring relationships which may be of different types, are at the heart of happy families, and are important for children’s security as they grow up. (Includes couples who do/do not have children. Ensure they know it does not matter whether their parents are male and female; both male/female; only one parent; etc.)
  • how to recognise if family relationships are making them feel unhappy or unsafe, and how to seek help or advice from others if needed. (Include domestic abuse.)
  • the importance of permission-seeking and giving in relationships with peers, friends and adults. (Must seek permission before, eg, hugging friends; the meaning of give and take.)
  • about different types of bullying (including cyberbullying), the impact of bullying, responsibilities of bystanders (primarily reporting bullying to an adult) and how to get help. (Everyone’s responsibility to report bullying. Include homophobic bullying as well. Look at hate crimes.)
  • that each person’s body belongs to them, and the differences between appropriate and inappropriate or unsafe physical, and other, contact. (Recap the PANTS rule.)
  • how to respond safely and appropriately to adults they may encounter whom they do not know. (Do not share personal info. Recap safer strangers if they need help.)
  • how to ask for advice or help for themselves or others, and to keep trying until they are heard. (Different people who can help.)
  • how to report concerns or abuse, and the vocabulary and confidence needed to do so.
  • where to get advice, eg, family, school and/or other sources.
  • that the same principles apply to online relationships as to face-to-face relationships, including the importance of respect for others online including when we are anonymous. (Include cyberbullying.)
  • the rules and principles for keeping safe online, how to recognise risks, harmful content and contact, and how to report them.
  • how information and data is shared and used online. (Include secure websites and being careful with personal data.)
  • that people sometimes behave differently online, including by pretending to be someone they are not. (Introduce the concept of grooming.)

Year 6

  • that marriage represents a formal and legally recognised commitment of two people to each other which is intended to be lifelong. (Used to be between a man and a woman, can now be between two men or two women as well.)
  • what a stereotype is, and how stereotypes can be unfair, negative or destructive. (Cover gender, race, religion, age, disability, etc. and the impact of the media in reinforcing equal opportunities.)
  • about the rule of law and that everyone in this country is equal.
  • about individual liberty.
  • know their individual rights and responsibilities at home, in school and in the community
  • gain simple knowledge about the law and understand that rules and the law are designed to protect
  • appreciate the positive impact of human beings on plants, animals and the environment
  • how to recognise if family relationships are making them feel unhappy or unsafe, and how to seek help or advice from others if needed. (Make links to domestic abuse.)
  • that most friendships have ups and downs, and that these can often be worked through so that the friendship is repaired or even strengthened, and that resorting to violence is never right. (Think about how they react when they fall out with their friends and the emotions that are involved.)
  • how to recognise who to trust and who not to trust, how to judge when a friendship is making them feel unhappy or uncomfortable, managing conflict, how to manage these situations and how to seek help or advice from others, if needed. (Discuss what we mean by uncomfortable – may be different for different people.)
  • the importance of self-respect and how this links to their own happiness. (Explain what we mean by self-respect.)
  • that in school and in wider society they can expect to be treated with respect by others, and that in turn they should show due respect to others, including those in positions of authority. (Equality for all and mutual respect – British values)
  • about the concept of privacy and the implications of it for both children and adults; including that it is not always right to keep secrets if they relate to being safe. (Examples of good and bad secrets.)
  • that people sometimes behave differently online, including by pretending to be someone they are not. (Grooming – leading to potential sexual abuse.)
  • how to critically consider their online friendships and sources of information including awareness of the risks associated with people they have never met. (Never share personal information.)
  • how information and data is shared and used online. (Once on the internet, can never be certain it has been deleted. Anyone can copy it.)

Year 6 also have the opportunities to learn about finances and explore the transition from Y6 to Y7.

  • interview adults to find out about job roles and responsibilities
  • know that certain skills can be used for different tasks
  • know the range of knowledge, skills and personal qualities required for different types of work
  • respect other people’s work and career choices
  • act confidently
  • to look after their money and realise that future wants and needs may be met through saving
  • to examine ways of earning money
  • to explore the decisions required in spending, saving and budgeting
  • be able to manage money, budgeting and accounting
  • to learn about planning for the future
  • to gain understanding of the world of work
  • to start thinking about what types of jobs they might like for the future
  • Enable children to face challenges in a supportive environment
  • Look ahead to the transition to secondary school
  • Have confidence about the near future and discuss feelings about the change of schools/concerns and anxieties
  • Become more independent
  • Take responsibility for themselves including their behaviour
  • Understand that transition and change are part of everyone’s life experiences
  • To create and sustain different roles
  • To develop strategies for managing change
  • To reflect on what they have learnt about change and transition
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